I have made extensive use of The Natural History Museum's HOSTS - The Hostplants and Caterpillars Database to list foodplants. I have listed those given for North America as well as for the Neararctic.

Books and internet resources sited below have also been utilized.

Distribution and Flight Times:

I have made extensive use of
The Lepidopterists' Society Season Summary to update distributions and flight times listed in

Legion of Night by Theodore D. Sargent, and

Eastern Moths by Carles V. Covell, Jr., and

The Moths of Canada Part 1: Noctuoidea of Western Canada by
J.T. Troubridge and J.D. Lafontaine.


I have made extensive use of Legion of Night by T. D. Sargent,

Eastern Moths by Carles V. Covell, Jr.

Le Guide des Papillons du Quebec by Louis Handfield

Historical vs Recent Moth Illustrations by Joe Kunkel.

The Harold J. Vermes slides are especially beautiful and useful.

Dr. Ken Neil of Nova Scotia and Vernon A. Brou of Louisiana have also been especially helpful as have the images provided by James K. Adams, Dale Clark, Bruce Walsh, Gerald Fauske, Lynn Scott, Cindy Mead, Troy Bartlett; Tim Dyson (wow).

Electronic Images:

I have done direct scans of spread and then-posed specimens collected by myself, either in New Jersey or on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

I am also most thankful to the following people who have all given me permission to use images from their respective sites and/or collections:

Adams, James K., Georgia Noctuidae;
Bartlett, Troy, Georgia: Troy's Photo gallery; Brou, Vernon A., Louisiana: Vernon is undoubtedly one of the most knowledgeable collectors and describers of Catocala in the United States.

Tim Dyson has provided many beautiful images from Peterboro, Ontario.

Campbell, John H., Georgia: Southeastern Butterflies and Moths Image Gallery.
Clark, Dale, Texas: Moths of Dallas County, Texas
Fauske, Gerald; North Dakota
Mead, Cindy;, Michigan; Moth Galleries

Miller, Jeff; Macromoths of Northwest Forests and Woodlands.
Scott, Lynn, Ontario; Lynn Scott's Lepidoptera Images.
Thomas, Anthony W., New Brunswick; Natural Resources Canada: Species Check List, New Brunswick
Wagner, David L., Connecticut; Caterpillars of Eastern Forests
Walsh, Bruce, Arizona; Moths of Southeastern Arizona: Noctuidae (Cutworm moths)

Walter, Steve

Dr. Lawrence (Larry) Gall has been extremely helpful with some of the more difficult identifications. When I am not sure, I ask Larry.


I have made extensive use of Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico (abstracted from Hodges et al., 1983, with annotations.)
J. G. Franclemont & E. L. Todd.


Rick Gillmore of Florida has provided corrections and additions for many foodplants.

Return to Main Catocala Index

This page is brought to you by Bill Oehlke and the WLSS.

Please send sightings/images to Bill. I will do my best to respond to requests for identification help.