Updated as per "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 3783 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks; March 21, 2010

Catocala of South Carolina

Catocala vidua, Rock Hill, York County, South Carolina,
September 23, 2008, courtesy of Lonnie Huffman.

This thumbnail checklist is dedicated to and inspired by Lonnie Huffman. Lonnie has sent me many outstanding lepidoptera images (moths and butterflies) over the years.

As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.

I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.

Catocala carissima, Conway, Horry County, South Carolina,
July 5, 2011, courtesy of Gary Phillips.

The Identification Keys Diagram should help you understand the terminology I have used in describing the various species.

Visit South Carolina Sphingidae: Hawk Moths/Sphinx Moths.

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-45mm

**8878 Catocala alabamae; Alabama Underwing; 30-40mm; Uniform greenish-grey fw may have thin but dark (contrasting) lines or they may be nearly absent (titania); alabamae often with dash in median/anal angle area, missing or nearly absent in titania. Brown shading between pm line/subterminal line. Hw inner black band thin, outer band thick, truncated before being followed by large black dot. Early flight season. unconfirmed

**8878 Catocala amica; Girlfriend; wingspan: 35-40mm
The black postmedian band is absent from the dorsal (upper) surface of the hindwing, but it is present on the ventral surface. Moths come in to lights and to bait.

Catocala amica lineella is now (2010) elevated to full species status as Catocala lineella.
Maurice Bottos image.

** 8878.1 lineella; Little Lined Underwing; wingspan: 35-40mm. This species is without hw marginal black band. Fw subreniform spot is pale and boldy outlined with black. There is similar light brownish-gray patch in upper half of median area near pm line, and just between subreniform spot and am line there is similarly coloured light patch paralleling am lne. The reniform spot is dark, less distinct and in a generally darker area.

Catocala jair; 35-40mm. The moth is hard to distinguish from amica, but jair has broader, blunter forewings than amica and the post medial line of jair is straighter (much less dentate) than that of amica. The hindwings of both species seem identical. unconfirmed

** 8874 Catocala minuta TM; Little Underwing, 35-45mm; Fw grey-brown, greatly widened, white, st line (near costa only). Hw outer black band unbroken, inner band in complete loop, brown scaling along im. "eureka" Schwarz: blackish area between am,pm lines; "hiseri" Cassino: dull grey fw, very faint markings; "mellitula" Hulst: blackish patch in basal area from costa to im; "obliterata" Schwarz: melanic form, almost completely black fw; "parvula" W. H. Edwards: broad dark patch along fw i. m..

** 8846 sordida; Sordid Underwing, wingspan: 37-45mm: Fw is lighter along costa and darker along inner margin. Dark medial lines are especially evident through lighter shades near costa. Outer black band of the hindwing is broken near the anal angle. I made the determination on the moth to the left based on dark scaling along the inner margin limited to median area and submarginal "teeth" relatively short and blunt. Tim Dyson image.

** 8873 similis; Similar Underwing, wingspan: 35-45mm. Pale triangular patch from pm line along costa, pointed at apex, light-coloured, tear-shaped reniform spot. Subreniform spot also projects considerably beyond reniform anteriorally at right angle to line of subreniform. Many specimens also have small, light coloured, flattened oval spot about halfway between pm and am lines at about midpoint of reniform spot. Pm line is almost straight for most of length.

messalina, Messalina Underwing, (40-45mm); WO?;

The forewing is a plain, dull, grey-green, darkening toward the outer margin. The hindwing is like that of the false underwing, having no inner black band. The outer band is quite wide. C. messalina flies in evergreen oak habitats. unconfirmed

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-56mm
These tend to be slightly larger on average than preceding group.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). John Himmelman image. Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. High variability. Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form gisela, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).
The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "gisela" Meyer has a forewing that is mostly black. Leroy Simon image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form hero, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "hero" H. Edwards has a median area that is mostly white.
Joe Garris image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).

Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings.

Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "sargenti" Covell (very rare) has a hindwing that is all black.

** 8877 connubialis, Connubial Underwing; 35-50mm: Fw highly variable; several different forms: "sancta" Hulst; typical, fws with white ground colour, sharply contrasting black lines, markings. Brown shading between pm and subterminal lines; "cordelia" H. Edwards, coloured as above, markings faint; "pulverulenta" Brower: grey-green fws with faint markings, sometimes none; "broweri" Muller: melanic form with fws dark green, almost black. Hw: separate anal spot and outer band ends with straight cut. Leroy Simon image.

** 8860 lincolnana, Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Fws pale grey-brown with distinct dark curve running from costa along antemedial line to im, advancing to anal angle. Hw inner black band forms complete loop, outer black band broken and followed by dot. unconfirmed

** 8772 clintoni; Clinton's Underwing, wingspan 45-55mm.

The black basal dash distinguishes clintoni from illecta and abbreviatella, both of which lack the dash.

Vernon Brou image.

** 8847 gracilis, Graceful Underwing, (wingspan: 40-45mm): Gracilis closely resembles sordida but the hindwing loop is not complete in gracilis as it is in sordida.
Gracilis also tends to have a darker inner margin and there is frequently (99% of the time, Dale Schweitzer, via Joe Garris), but not always, a basal dash. Sordida never has the basal dash.

** 8864 Catocala grynea ; Woody Underwing, 40-50mm: The forewing is a dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along the inner margin. The antemedial, median and postmedial lines are quite faint.
Praeclara is somewhat similar but has a break in the brown shading between the am and pm lines. Praeclara also has a paler orange hindwing color.
Tim Dyson image.

** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, (40-50mm); The forewing is a pale greenish-grey with considerable contrasting brown shading beyond post medial line.

There is a black basal dash very close to the inner margin and another dash, higher up in the median area.

Note the contrasting shapes of the reniform and subreniform spots. Tim Dyson image.

Catocala pretiosa Precious Underwing; 40-50mm; The median area is quite light with a wide whitish band paralleling the antemedial line from the costa almost to the inner margin. The subreniform spot is distinctly brown.
The inner black band on the hindwing forms a complete loop and mingles with dark scaling along the inner margin. The outer black band is almost broken. The orange-yellow fringe is heavily checked with black.
"Subspecies" texarkana is now a synonym of pretiosa rather than a subspecies.

** 8867 Catocala blandula; Charming Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm.
Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw has dark contrasting lines as in crataegi. There is also considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot is very conspicuous and usually brown. A light area runs obliquely from the costa to the subreniform spot. hw is deep orange and has a complete inner black band. The outer black band is unbroken. Lynn Scott image.

Catocala mira; Wonderful Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm. Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi and blandula. Considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot very conspicuous, usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. Noticeable space along i. m. between antemedial and postmedial lines. Hw deep orange and has a complete inner black band. The outer black band is unbroken Tim Dyson image.

** 8858 Catocala crataegi as subspecies 1; Hawthorn Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm Determination based on dark (black) shading in forewing basal area continuing along inner margin to anal angle and brown shading beyond postmedial line. Definite greenish cast to median area. Hw outer black band, broken near anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula. Tim Dyson image.

** 8848 louiseae, Louise's Underwing, (wingspan: 40mm). Distinct white "smile" (in spread specimens) between reniform and subreniform spots. Narrow but distinct white line immediately following black postmedial line. Hw deep yellow orange, outer black band interrupted, followed by dot, ending before im. unconfirmed

** 8844 amestris; Three-staff Underwing; wingspan 45-50mm.

There is a large pale patch near the apex. In form "westcotti" the hindwing outer black band is complete. In other moths, the band is broken as in abbreviatella. Hindwing ground colour is usually deeper yellow-orange than in similar species. Leroy Simon image.

** 8875 C. grisatra; Grisatra Underwing, wingspan 48-55mm.

Fws make it look like miniature ulalume. Fws bluish grey with darker anal dash, wide arc from reniform spot to om. Hw median band incomplete loop. Uncommon and very local in its limited range. unconfirmed

Midsized Orange-Salmon-Red-Scarlet Underwings: Wingspans: 50-72mm

** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

Fws typically gray-brown, with a distinct and very dark inner margin and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Underwings can be yellow to orange to salmon.

** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

In form lucinda most of the forewing is bright grey.

On all forms there is extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface, and there is a dark discal lunule.

Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, the Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm. In the melanic form nigrescens, the dorsal forewing is very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash and dash near anal angle are still visible. Dark basal hairs on hindwing. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from his son.

Catocala ultronia form celia.

In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and a dark patch near the apex. The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.

** 8774 muliercula; Little Wife Underwing, 54-70mm. The black bands of the hindwings tend to be very wide and there is considerable dark scaling along the inner margins. Hw fringe is very dark as is the general reddish-brown ground colour of the forewings.

The forewing apex is preceded along the costa by a lighter, grey-brown patch.

Steve Walter image.

** 8779 serena Serene Underwing. 55-60mm. Head, collar and abdomen are brown while thorax is grey. Am and pm lines are thin but very dark and distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey forewing. Black marginal band of the lower wings is indented at the center, and relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels this indentation. Basal hairs are brown. Catocala serena courtesy of Carroll Rudy.

** 8770 Catocala innubens; Betrothed; 55-72mm. Forewing is mottled with white, grey and brown, and subrenifrom spot tends to be lighter in colour, although it is sometimes obscured by an indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin.

Jim Vargo image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm.

In form scintillans most of the basal area (all but lower third) and all of the median area of the forewing is dark reddish brown. The area outside the pm line is grey.

Vernon A Brou image.

** 8840 Catocala illecta; Magdalen Underwing, 60-70mm; The forewing pattern and colouration is much like that of concumbens, pale grey with faint black lines.
Hindwings are light yellow and the irregular inner black band terminates well before the inner margin. James K. Adams image.

** 8851 Catocala coccinata; Scarlet; 57-70mm: Diffuse basal and anal dashes on an otherwise light grey, mottled fw. Hw fringe white (often with some salmon scaling); heavily checked. "Tooth" just below pair of very elongated "teeth" is much reduced, quite rounded, usually allowing considerable room for lighter patch of scales. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot light, often with greenish cast. Joe Garris image.

** 8772 Catocala consors WO; Consort, wingspan: 70mm plus. Fw with irregular am and pm narrow black lines. Dark patch outside the reniform and subreniform spots. The orange-yellow hindwing pm band tends to be narrow and irregularly zigzagged. Sometimes the band is wider and slightly less irregular. James K. Adams image.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama ; wingspan: 60-70mm. Subreniform spot closed, does not approach pm line, is smaller than in C. habilis. All forms have characteristic orange, heavily barred fringe to apex, and irregular bands on hws. Hw basal median area heavily suffused with dark brown to black scales. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling i. m. halfway between i. m. and light, closed subreniform spot. Joe Garris photo.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama form phalanga; wingspan: 60-70mm. In this form, fw basal area and subterminal area are very dark against a much lighter background. Dark bar in the outer half of the median area, paralleling the inner margin halfway between the inner margin and the light, closed subreniform spot is especially evident. Joe Garris image.

Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired

miranda, Miranda Underwing; 37-45mm; Fw: plain pale grey with very light and fine black lines, darker and wider near costa. Hw black with white fringe at the apex, turning to grey along the outer margin. Miranda is smaller than look-alike orba and miranda also has a dark bar just above the inner margin in the median area, projecting toward the anal angle.

Catocala orba, Orba Underwing, (wingspan: 40-45mm). Fw uniform grey with light lines and poorly defined spots. Hw underside completely black. Hw fringe unbroken, slightly off white, somewhat grey.

Catocala andromedae, Gloomy Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Black underwings and dark grey fringe of hws, coupled with dark inner margin of forewings help to identify this species. There is also a very dark "flying saucer" shape, adjoining subreniform spot to midpoint of am line. The "teeth" of pm line short and blunt, outwardly edged with white. Subterminal line is also outwardly edged with white.

** 8781 judith, Judith's Underwing, 45-55mm; one of smaller "black" underwings. Fw uniform light grey with thin, only slightly darkened antemedial, median & pm lines. No darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. Reniform area slightly darkened while the area just before the subterminal line is a bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo.

** 8782 Catocala flebilis, yes; Mournful, wingspan: 54-65mm. Diffuse black band runs from basal area to o. m. just below apex, interrupted by pale grey subreniform spot. Reniform spot filled with brown; Additional brown outside pm line. No anal dash as in angusi. Hws have white fringe. J. K. Adams image.

** 8773 Catocala epione , yes; Epione Underwing, wingspan: 55-65mm

The pm line is squared and has a brown band and then a light band just outside the line.

The hindwing is black with pure white fringe with no barring.
John Himmelman image.

Catocala ulalume, Ulalume Underwing, (wingspan: 65mm). Fw mottled light to dark grey, no strongly contrasting lines, dashes, bars. Aml ends at im in very light coloured crescent, close to pml. Open subrenifrom spot light coloured, "comma" shaped with triangular, somewhat bulbous head. Aml: short, thin, slightly humped dark line through midpoint. Hw black, fringe pure white, thin, pointed checking.

Catocala residua, Residua Underwing, yes, (wingspan: 58-73mm), Distinguished from C. obscura by grey hindwing fringe of residua. C. obscura has white to off-white fringe, tends to be less common in northern portions of its range. Fw subterminal line/area of C. residua tends to be pale as is its open, elongated subreniform spot.
Devoid of significant markings except for hint of dark bar running from basal area through reniform spot to om just below apex.

Catocala dejecta; Dejected; wingspan 56-73mm. Pale grey patch from reniform and subreniform juncture to costal margin is diagnostic. Note open, light "pork chop" shape of subreniform spot. Two "teeth" in pml above subreniform spot are relatively short and blunt. Upper portion of aml thick and black; lower half has light rounded lobes outlined in black. Hw fringe is white with black wing veins extending like "teeth".

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas distinguish angusi. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white at apex. Form lucetta has broad black band from basal area to o.m., broken by reniform & subreniform spots.

Catocala retecta; wingspan: 60-75mm. Note light coloured, elongated and open subreniform spot which interrupts dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Center of reniform spot brown and there is a brown area just below costa running to inner margin just outside pm line. Off-white hindwing fringe only lightly checked along wing veins. Joe Garris image.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas distinguish angusi. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white at apex. Form lucetta: broad black band from basal area to o.m., broken by reniform & subreniform spots.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. The forewing is highly variable with a mixture of black, brown (wing tips and outside postmedial line) and dark grey scaling. There are usually whitish crescents, along the inner margin at the base of the antemedial and postmedial lines.

The hindwings are black with white checkered fringe, turning black near the anal angle. There are several different forms.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. Form paulina: lighter grey post median area & area along and parallel to inner margin, in sharp contrast to darker basal median areas.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm.

In form evelina there is a wide black band along the forewing inner margin.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm.

In form albomarginata there is an abundance of white scaling on the forewing.

Form "zelica", not shown, has black basal patch and st line.

Catocala sappho, Underwing, (wingspan: 62-75mm), Forewings are off white with some grey-black-brown peppering and yellow-beige lines. The reniform spot is brown and the subreniform spot is almost pure white; the hindwings are black with a white fringe.

** 8791 Catocala insolabilis; Inconsolable, wingspan: 65-75mm. Fw light grey with blackish shading along inner margin. Antemedial and postmedial lines thin. Hw fringe is very narrow and grey, becoming whiter toward the apex. The ventral surface clearly distinguishes insolabis, being almost completely black except for some white in the basal area. Vernon A. Brou image.

Catocala luctuosa, Underwing, (wingspan: mm). Fw light grey (yellowish tint) clearly marked with a basal dash that continues with another dash through the am line, followed by another anal dash almost forming bar parallel to im. Hw fringe white, lightly barred at veins. Fw pml "teeth" elongated and dark, continuing dark dar emanating from om just below apex.

** Catocala myristica; slightly smaller than robinsonii, myristica has a browner cell spot and a darker bottom line on the longest extension of the pm line near the inner margin. Probably only in Black Belt on nutmeg hickory

** Catocala myristica; slightly smaller than robinsonii, myristica has a browner cell spot and a darker bottom line on the longest extension of the pm line near the inner margin. Dark bar very prominent but does not intrude on cell mark, nor present along inner edge of reniform spot. Also note absence of upper black line inside reniform spot.

** 8780 Catocala robinsonii; 70-80mm. Fws relatively plain pale grey. Female has basal dash, absent in male. Currata French, 1882, female form: weak basal dash. Rare form missouriensis Schwarz, 1915: dark, broad bar extending from basal area to o.m. just below apex. Lighter grey rnfm, subrnfm spots break bar in missouriensis, found from PA. to FL. Hw fringe: White; bands on ventral surface prominent.

** 8780 Catocala robinsonii; 70-80mm. Barred form very similar to Catocala myristica but note very thin pm line from costa to inner margin. In myristica line thickens along lower edge of longest "loop" near inner margin. Note presence of upper black line inside reniform spot.

** 8792 Catocala vidua; Widow; wingspan: 70-80mm. Fw ground colour light grey. Distinguishing dark arc runs through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal, basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to i. m..
Am line thick, black in its upper half. Reniform spot consists of two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot light, open, constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, lightly interrupted. Marie Winn image.

Catocala agrippina, Underwing, (wingspan: 75-85mm). Head and body blackish grey (dorsal) and greyish white (ventral). Male fws grey-black with some reddish brown (distinguishing characteristic); transverse lines black, darker toward costa, lighter near im. Reniform indistinct, brown, sub-reniform almost obsolete, lighter than surrounding areas.

** 8793 Catocala maestosa SM, Sad Underwing, wingspan: 78-98mm. Maesotsa is quite similar to, although usually larger than, vidua. Both have the dark arc from the costa, above the reniform spot, to the outer margin just below the apex. Maesotsa, however, lacks the dark bar, found on vidua, parallel to the inner margin. The reniform spot is brown and there is brown shading just outside the postmedial line. The hindwing fringe is white, narrow and heavily barred.

Large Orange-Salmon Underwings: Wingspans: 65mm, usually 70-95mm

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; wingspan: 65-82mm
Catocala ilia specimens come in several different forms, but most of them have the characteristic white area in and around the reniform spot. There is also a diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below the outer apex.
Except in worn specimens and the darkest forms, the white dots near the outer margin of the forewing are in character with the overall "contrasting" appearance of this moth.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua.

In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas.

In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".

The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani.

In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8857.1 Catocala umbrosa; mm; Double brown am line, inward line fainter, filled with off white; reniform spot brown center outlined in black , off white and black again; subreniform, large, pale brown, closed. Pm line wit htwo elongated upper teeth, next tooth reduced, next two progressively longer, rounded, final lobe rounded and shorter. HW with dark scaling/hairs in basal median area along im

** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, wingspan: 68-84mm. Fw: light-colored band/bar extending from light coloured, triangular subreniform spot along am line to costa. Brown, kidney-shaped reniform spot surrounded in pale grey, outlined in black, usually with distinct black along wing veins in a dark area outside the reniform spot. Hw: fringe lightly barred; lighter in color than deeper orange on rest of wing.

** 8798 Catocala neogama; wingspan 70-85mm. Brown head, thorax, larger size as compared to C. palaeogama. Neogama tend to be slightly smaller than subnata, have darker grey brown fws with more pronounced markings. Examination of hind tibia needed for id. Neogama's: flattened, unevenly, sparsely spined; subnata's: cylindrical, spines dense, uniform in distribution. Joe Garris photo.

Catocala nebulosa; 75-86mm; Moths have prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch that extends to and ends at antemedial line. Apical area also tends to be brown, much darker than median area but not as dark as basal patch. The anal angle also has the darker brown scaling. The pm line is distinct near costa and inner margin, but becomes weak between the two. It meets inner margin in relative close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot is large and connects to the pm line via a thin line.

Catocala nebulosa, Abingdon, Harford County September 12, 2009,
photographed at uv light in power line cut, courtesy of Kevin Harkins.

** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing: 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey and light brown scales, usually with hws brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, but present in females. Magnification of hind tibia needed for id: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia. subnata: ventral surface of tibia densely covered with evenly distributed spines; neogama: ventral surface of tibia sparsely covered.

** 8804 C. marmorata; Marbled; wingspan 85-95mm
Dark fw arc runs from costa down through reniform spot to outer margin just below apex. The subrenifrom spot is light, is bordered inwardly above by a white patch, and is connected to the pm line by a line rather than being open.

Medium-Large Pink Underwings: Wingspans: 70-95mm

** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; wingspan 70-85mm. Deep maroon almost purple cast to fws, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am and pm lines barely visible. No distinctive bars or dashes. Two upper "teeth" on pm line thin and long. Hw bands pink. Heavy black checking on off-white hw fringe. Relatively thick black hw median band almost reaches im which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs. Tim Dyson image.

** Catocala carissima; wingspan 70-85mm. Distinct light grey brown area at fw apex, preceded just inside pm line by slightly darker patch. Am and pm lines sharp and dark. Hw inner black band wide, complete, merges with extensive grey-black scaling along im. Hw fringe cream coloured.

Catocala carissima, Conway, Horry County, South Carolina, July 5, 2011, courtesy of Gary Phillips.

** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm). Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning and colouration similar to that of C. concumbens, but large size (wingspan 75-95mm) and dark bar running from basal area to just below apex distinguishes C. amatrix. See large Catocala amatrix courtesy of Joan F. Rickert.

** 8834 amatrix form selecta Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Several forms, including selecta (to the left) which lacks dark bar on forewing. Hesseli: melanic form; pallida: very pale form.

** 8834 amatrix form hesseli Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. The melanic form hesseli is very dark and displays dark basal hairs in the hindwing.

Visit Horry County Catocala, courtesy of Gary Phillips.

Greenville County, South Carolina

8771 Catocala piatrix

8773 Catocala epione

8779 Catocala serena

8784 Catocala obscura

8788 Catocala retecta

8790 Catocala dejecta

8792 Catocala vidua

8793 Catocala maestosa

8794 Catocala lacrymosa

8795 Catocala palaeogama

8796 Catocala nebulosa

8798 Catocala neogama

8801 Catocala ilia

8804 Catocala marmorata

8832 Catocala cara

8849 Catocala andromedae

8851 Catocala coccinata

8857 Catocala ultronia

8867 Catocala blandula

8873 Catocala similis

8876 Catocala micronympha

8877 Catocala connubialis

8878a Catocala amica

Harry D. King writes, "Off hand the only one I can see you might want to add is Catocala robinsoni "missouriensis", Sleepy Creek, Edgefield County, South Carolina
"Ref; Legion of Night by Sargent 1976 Plate 2 # 4."

Enjoy some of nature's wonderments, giant silk moth cocoons. These cocoons are for sale winter and fall. Beautiful Saturniidae moths will emerge the following spring and summer. Read Actias luna rearing article. Additional online help available.

Eggs of many North American Saturniidae species are offered during the spring and summer. Occasionally summer Actias luna and summer Antheraea polyphemus cocoons are available. Shipping to US destinations is done from within the US.

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This page is brought to you by Bill Oehlke and the WLSS. Pages are on space rented from Bizland. If you would like to become a "Patron of the Catocala Site", contact Bill.

Please send sightings/images to Bill. I will do my best to respond to requests for identification help.

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Visit "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 3783 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks