Updated as per "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 37–83 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks; March 21, 2010

Catocala of North Carolina

Catocala marmorata, Appalachian Mountains, Boone, Watauga County, North Carolina,
September 8, 2011, 3600ft, courtesy of Eric Smith.

Catocala marmorata, Appalachian Mountains, Boone, Watauga County, North Carolina,
95mm, September 2008, 3600ft, courtesy of Eric Smith, id by Bill Oehlke.

Catocala piatrix resting head down, Caldwell County, western North Carolina,
October 24, 2009, courtesy of Aubrey Scott.

Visit North Carolina Sphingidae for images of and information about Sphingidae (Hawk Moths) found in North Carolina.

As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.

I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.

The Identification Keys Diagram should help you understand the terminology I have used in describing the various species.

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-45mm

** C. alabamae; Alabama; wingspan: 30-40mm

Uniform greenish-grey forewing may have thin but dark (contrasting) medial lines or they may be nearly absent (titania); alabamae often displays dash in median/anal angle area, missing or nearly absent in titania. Brown shading between pm line and sbtml line.
unconfirmed Vernon A. Brou image.

Catocala jair; 35-40mm. The moth is hard to distinguish from amica, but jair has broader, blunter forewings than amica and the post medial line of jair is straighter (much less dentate) than that of amica. The hindwings of both species seem identical.

**8878 Catocala amica; Girlfriend; wingspan: 35-40mm
The black postmedian band is absent from the dorsal (upper) surface of the hindwing, but it is present on the ventral surface. Moths come in to lights and to bait.

Catocala amica lineella is now (2010) elevated to full species status as Catocala lineella.
Maurice Bottos image.

** 8878.1 lineella; Little Lined Underwing; wingspan: 35-40mm. This species is without hw marginal black band. Fw subreniform spot is pale and boldy outlined with black. There is similar light brownish-gray patch in upper half of median area near pm line, and just between subreniform spot and am line there is similarly coloured light patch paralleling am lne. The reniform spot is dark, less distinct and in a generally darker area.

** 8874 Catocala minuta; Little Underwing, wingspan: 35-45mm. Fw generally grey-brown with greatly widened (near costa only), white, st line. Hw outer black band unbroken, inner band forms complete loop with considerable brown scaling along im. "eureka" blackish area between lines; "hiseri" dull grey fw, very faint markings; "mellitula" blackish basal patch from costa to im; "obliterata" almost completely black fw; "parvula" broad dark patch along fw im. Steve Walter image. unconfirmed

** 8873 similis; Similar Underwing, wingspan: 35-45mm. Pale triangular patch from pm line along costa, pointed at apex, light-coloured, tear-shaped reniform spot. Subreniform spot projects considerably beyond reniform anteriorally at right angle to subreniform line. Often with small, light coloured, flattened oval spot about halfway between lines near midpoint of reniform spot. Pm line almost straight for most of length. Tim Dyson photo.

dulciola; Quiet/Sweet Underwing, wingspan: 40-45mm;

A double, black, almost smooth antemedial line (inner line broken only near the costa) with other lines obscure distinguishes dulciola. There is also a dark basal dash on an otherwise plain, light grey forewing.

** 8846 sordida; Sordid Underwing, wingspan: 37-45mm. Fw lighter along costa, darker along im. Dark medial lines evident through lighter shades near costa. Hw outer black band broken near anal angle.

I made determination based on dark scaling along the inner margin limited to median area and submarginal "teeth" relatively short and blunt.
Tim Dyson image.

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-56mm
These tend to be slightly larger on average than preceding group.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). John Himmelman image. Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. High variability. Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form gisela, Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "gisela" Meyer has a forewing that is mostly black. Leroy Simon image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form hero, Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "hero" H. Edwards has a median area that is mostly white.
Joe Garris image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings. Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "sargenti" Covell (very rare) has a hindwing that is all black.

** 8877 connubialis, Connubial Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Fw highly variable; several different forms: "sancta", typical form: fws with white ground colour and sharply contrasting black lines and markings. Brown shading between pm and subterminal lines; "cordelia", as above but markings are faint; "pulverulenta", grey-green fws, faint markings, sometimes none; "broweri". melanic form with dark green, almost black fws. Hw has separate anal spot and outer band ends with straight cut. Leroy Simon image.

** 8848 louiseae, Louise's Underwing, (wingspan: 40mm). Distinct white "smile" (in spread specimens) between reniform and subreniform spots. Narrow but distinct white line immediately following black postmedial line. Hw deep yellow orange, outer black band interrupted, followed by dot, ending before im.

** 8845 messalina, Messalina Underwing, (wingspan: 40-45mm).

The forewing is a plain, dull, grey-green, darkening toward the outer margin.

The hindwing is like that of the false underwing, having no inner black band. The outer band is quite wide.

** 8847 gracilis, Graceful Underwing, (wingspan: 40-45mm). Gracilis closely resembles sordida but hindwing loop not complete in gracilis as in sordida. Gracilis tends to have darker inner margin, frequently (99% of the time, Dale Schweitzer, via Joe Garris), but not always, a basal dash. Sordida lacks basal dash. In the form lemmeri, black border along im very sharply defined.

** 8858.1 pretiosa, Precious Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Similar to crataegi and mira; pretiosa has considerable creamy white colouration in median area. Lower portion of basal area is light, not dark as in crataegi. HW inner black band forms loop, outer band is broken (not complete as in mira, followed by dot tapering to anal angle. as pretiosa charlottei

Catocala pretiosa texarkana Texas-Arkansas Underwing; 40-50mm; The median area is quite light with a wide whitish band paralleling the antemedial line from the costa almost to the inner margin. The subreniform spot is distinctly brown.
The inner black band on the hindwing forms a complete loop and mingles with dark scaling along the inner margin. The outer black band is almost broken. The orange-yellow fringe is heavily checked with black.

** 8860 lincolnana, Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Fws pale grey-brown with distinct dark curve running from costa along antemedial line to im, advancing to anal angle. Hw inner black band forms complete loop, outer black band broken and followed by dot. probably

** 8864 Catocala grynea ; Woody Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm

Fw dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along im. Antemedial, median and postmedial lines quite faint.

Praeclara is somewhat similar but has a break in the brown shading between am and pm lines. Praeclara also has paler orange hindwing color. Tim Dyson image.

** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm

Fw pale greenish-grey with considerable contrasting brown shading beyond pm line.

Black basal dash very close to im and another dash, higher up in median area.

Note the contrasting shapes of reniform and subreniform spots. Tim Dyson image.

** 8867 Catocala blandula; Charming Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm.
Pale basal area of forewing distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw has dark contrasting lines as in crataegi. Considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot is very conspicuous and usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. The hindwing is deep orange and has complete inner black band. Outer black band is unbroken. Lynn Scott image.

Catocala mira; Wonderful Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm. Pale fw basal area distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi and blandula. Considerable brown in subterminal area, subreniform spot very conspicuous, usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. Noticeable space along im between am and pm lines. Hw deep orange, complete inner black band. Outer black band unbroken Tim Dyson image.

** 8858 Catocala crataegi as subspecies 1; Hawthorn Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm Determination based on dark (black) shading in forewing basal area continuing along inner margin to anal angle and brown shading beyond postmedial line. Definite greenish cast to median area. Hw outer black band, broken near anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula. Tim Dyson image.

** 8844 amestris; Three-staff Underwing; wingspan 43-50mm.

There is a large pale patch near the apex. In form "westcotti" the hindwing outer black band is complete. In other moths, the band is broken as in abbreviatella. Hindwing ground colour is usually deeper yellow-orange than in similar species. Leroy Simon image.

** 8772 clintoni; Clinton's Underwing, wingspan 45-55mm.

The black basal dash distinguishes clintoni from illecta and abbreviatella, both of which lack the dash.

Vernon Brou image.

** 8875 C. grisatra; Grisatra Underwing, wingspan 48-55mm.

Fws make it look like miniature ulalume. Fws bluish grey with darker anal dash, wide arc from reniform spot to om. Hw median band incomplete loop. Uncommon and very local in its limited range. Yes, in coastal plain.

Midsized Orange-Salmon-Red-Scarlet Underwings: Wingspans: 50-72mm

** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

Fws typically gray-brown, with a distinct and very dark inner margin and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Underwings can be yellow to orange to salmon.

** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

In form lucinda most of the forewing is bright grey.

On all forms there is extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface, and there is a dark discal lunule.

Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, the Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm. In the melanic form nigrescens, the dorsal forewing is very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash and dash near anal angle are still visible. Dark basal hairs on hindwing. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from his son.

Catocala ultronia form celia.

In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and a dark patch near the apex. The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.

** 8774 muliercula; Little Wife Underwing, 54-70mm. The black bands of the hindwings tend to be very wide and there is considerable dark scaling along the inner margins. Hw fringe is very dark as is the general reddish-brown ground colour of the forewings.

The forewing apex is preceded along the costa by a lighter, grey-brown patch.

Steve Walter image.

** 8779 serena Serene Underwing Head, collar and abdomen brown while thorax is grey. Am and pm lines thin but very dark, distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey fw. Black marginal band of hws indented at center, and relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels this indentation. Basal hairs brown.

#8778 Catocala habilis; wingspan: 55-65mm
Note large "M" on thorax and "pork chop" shaped, light coloured subreniform spot that becomes very dark in its constriction at juncture with pml. Pm line narrow but dark, distinct, outwardly lined with narrow suffusion of white scales, followed by broader band of brown scales, then another broader suffusion of white scales up to very regular dentation of subterminal line. Significant "bleeding" of yellow-orange to salmon scales into hw fringes. ??????

#8795 Catocala palaeogama ; wingspan: 60-70mm: Subreniform spot closed, does not approach pml, smaller than in C. habilis. All forms have characteristic orange, heavily barred fringe to apex, and irregular bands on hws. Hw basal median area heavily suffused with dark brown to black scales. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling im halfway between im and light, closed subreniform spot. Joe Garris photo.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama form phalanga; wingspan: 60-70mm: In this form, fw basal area and subterminal area very dark against much lighter background. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling the inner margin halfway between inner margin and light, closed subreniform spot is especially evident. Joe Garris image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens; Betrothed; 55-72mm. Forewing is mottled with white, grey and brown, and subrenifrom spot tends to be lighter in colour, although it is sometimes obscured by an indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin.

Jim Vargo image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm.

In form scintillans most of the basal area (all but lower third) and all of the median area of the forewing is dark reddish brown. The area outside the pm line is grey.

Vernon A Brou image.

** 8851 Catocala coccinata; Scarlet; 57-70mm: Diffuse basal and anal dashes on light grey, mottled fw. Hw fringe white (often with some salmon scaling), heavily checked. "Tooth" below pair of elongated "teeth" much reduced, quite rounded, allowing considerable room for lighter patch of scales. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot tends be to light, often with greenish cast. Joe Garris image.

** 8840 Catocala delilah; Delilah, wingspan: 60-65mm. Fw gray-brown with prominent black am and pm lines. Hw yellow-orange, narrow inner black band reaching im. Large yellow spot at apex, fringe faintly barred. Ventrally deep yellow with black bands. probably not

** 8840 Catocala illecta; Magdalen Underwing, wingspan: 60-70mm. Fw pattern and colouration much like concumbens, pale grey with faint black lines. Hws light yellow. Irregular inner black band terminates well before im. James K. Adams image.

** 8772 Catocala consors WO; Consort, wingspan: 70mm plus. Fw with irregular am and pm narrow black lines. Dark patch outside the reniform and subreniform spots. The orange-yellow hindwing pm band tends to be narrow and irregularly zigzagged. Sometimes the band is wider and slightly less irregular. James K. Adams image. probably

Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired

Catocala robinsoni 70-80; Robinson's Underwing yes

Catocala miranda, Miranda Underwing, (wingspan: 37-45mm). Fw plain pale grey with very light and fine black lines, darker and wider near costa.Hw black with white fringe at apex, turning to grey along om. Miranda smaller than orba; miranda has dark bar just above im in median area, projecting toward anal angle.

Catocala orba, Orba Underwing, (wingspan: 40-45mm). Fw uniform grey with light lines and poorly defined spots. Hw underside completely black. Hw fringe unbroken, slightly off white, somewhat grey.

Catocala andromedae, Gloomy Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Black underwings and dark grey fringe of hws, dark inner margin of fws help to identify this species. Very dark "flying saucer" shape, adjoining subreniform spot to midpoint of am line. "Teeth" of pm line are short, blunt, outwardly edged with white. Subterminal line outwardly edged with white. Full size Dirk Bayer photo.

** 8781 judith, Judith's Underwing, (wingspan: 45-55mm), yes, small "black" underwing. FW uniform light grey with thin, only slightly darkened am, median and pml lines. No darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. Reniform area slightly darkened while area just before subterminal line is bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo. yes

** 8782 Catocala flebilis ; Mournful, wingspan: 54-65mm. Diffuse black band runs from basal area to outer margin just below apex, interrupted by pale grey subreniform spot. Reniform spot filled with brown, additional brown outside postmedial line. No anal dash as in angusi. Hws have white fringe.

** 8773 Catocala epione , yes; Epione Underwing, wingspan: 55-65mm

Pm line squared with brown band, then light band just outside line.

Hw black with pure white fringe with no barring.

John Himmelman image.

Catocala dejecta, (wingspan: 56-73mm; Hodge #8790). Dejected Underwing quite similar to Catocala retecta. Light coloured subreniform spot open, but has distinct "pork-chop" shape, separates much darker median area below subreniform spot from very light area to costa above spot. The lower 1/4 of submarginal area is much darker in C. dejecta than in C. retecta.

Catocala retecta; wingspan: 60-75mm
Note light coloured, elongated, open subreniform spot interrupting dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Center of reniform spot brown, brown area just below costa running to imjust outside e pm line. Off-white hw fringe lightly checked along veins. Joe Garris image.

** 8784 obscura; the Obscure Underwing, (wingspan: 60-72mm), has dull, grey forewings, usually void of any significant dashes, streaks, providing for easy identification. Am, median and pm lines faint and subterminal line region is only slightly paler than rest of fw. Hw fringe is off-white, lightly checked on veins. Joe Garris photo.

Catocala residua; Residua Underwing, (wingspan: 60-73mm), distinguished from Catocala obscura by grey hw fringe of residua. Catocala obscura has white to off-white fringe and tends to be less common in northern portions of its range. Fw subterminal line/area of Catocala residua tends to be pale as is its open, elongated subreniform spot. Like C. obscura it is otherwise devoid of significant markings except for hint of dark bar running from basal area through reniform spot to o. m. just below apex.

Catocala ulalume, Ulalume Underwing, (wingspan: 65mm). Fw mottled light to dark grey, no strongly contrasting lines, dashes, bars. Aml ends at im in very light coloured crescent, close to pml. Open subrenifrom spot light coloured, "comma" shaped with triangular and somewhat bulbous head. Aml has short, thin, slightly humped dark line through midpoint. Hw black, fringe pure white, thin, pointed checking.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm.

Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. James K. Adams image.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. Form lucetta has broad black band from basal area to om, broken only by reniform & subreniform spots. James K. Adams image.

Catocala sappho, Underwing, (wingspan: 62-75mm), Forewings are off white with some grey-black-brown peppering and yellow-beige lines. The reniform spot is brown and the subreniform spot is almost pure white; the hindwings are black with a white fringe.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, wingspan: 60-82mm

Fw highly variable with mix of black, brown (wing tips and outside postmedial line) and dark grey scaling. Usually whitish crescents, along im at base of am and pm lines.

Hws black with white checkered fringe, turning black near anal angle.

** 8791 Catocala insolabilis; Inconsolable, wingspan: 65-75mm. Fwlight grey with blackish shading along im. Am and pm lines thin. Hw fringe very narrow, grey, becoming whiter toward apex. Ventral surface distinguishes insolabis, being almost completely black except for some white in basal area. Vernon A. Brou image. ?????????

Catocala luctuosa, Underwing, (wingspan: 70mm). Fw light grey (yellowish tint) clearly marked with a basal dash that continues with another dash through the am line, followed by another anal dash almost forming bar parallel to im. Hw fringe white, lightly barred at veins. Fw pml "teeth" elongated and dark, continuing dark dar emanating from om just below apex.

** 8780 Catocala robinsoni; 70-80mm. Fws relatively plain pale grey. Female has basal dash, absent in male. Currata French, 1882, female form: weak basal dash. Rare form missouriensis Schwarz, 1915: dark, broad bar extending from basal area to o.m. just below apex. Lighter grey rnfm, subrnfm spots break bar in missouriensis, found from PA. to FL. Hw fringe: White; bands on ventral surface prominent.

** 8792 Catocala vidua; Widow; wingspan: 70-80mm. Fw light grey. Dark arc running through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal and basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to im. Am line thick and black in its upper half. Reniform spot with two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot light, open, but constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, only lightly interrupted. Marie Winn image.

Catocala agrippina, Underwing, (wingspan: 75-85mm). Head and body blackish grey (dorsal) and greyish white (ventral). Male fws grey-black with some reddish brown (distinguishing characteristic); transverse lines black, darker toward costa, lighter near im. Reniform indistinct, brown, sub-reniform almost obsolete, lighter than surrounding areas.

** 8793 Catocala maestosa; Sad Underwing, wingspan: 78-98mm. Similar to, but usually larger than, vidua. Both have dark arc from costa, above reniform spot, to om just below apex. Maesotsa, however, lacks dark bar, found on vidua, parallel to im. Reniform spot brown, brown shading just outside pml line. Hw fringe white, narrow and heavily barred.

Large Black Underwings (Banded): Wingspans: 70-80mm

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm. Several different forms. Pm line distinct, dark and has elongate pair of projections. Pm and am lines meet inner margin in relative proximity. Closed subreniform spot lighter than surrounding areas, shaped a bit like an arrowhead with point toward body. Hws are distinctive. Jean-Benoît Duval image.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.

Form ruperti: Forewings are almost uniform grey-brown with white scales outlining subterminal line.

The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.

Form bunkeri: Forewings are dark in median and basal areas. Hw golden band is reduced in thickness. Basal hairs are brown instead of yellow.

The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

Large Orange-Salmon Underwings: Wingspans: 65mm, usually 70-95mm

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; wingspan: 65-82mm. Several different forms, most have characteristic white area in and around reniform spot. Diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below apex. Subreniform spot squarish, concave inner and outer edges and elongated constriction connecting it to pml. White dots near fw om in character with the overall "contrasting" appearance.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua

In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas

In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".

The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani

In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.

The basal streak and subapical arc are still visible.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8857.1 Catocala umbrosa; mm; Double brown am line, inward line fainter, filled with off white; reniform spot brown center outlined in black , off white and black again; subreniform, large, pale brown, closed. Pm line wit htwo elongated upper teeth, next tooth reduced, next two progressively longer, rounded, final lobe rounded and shorter. HW with dark scaling/hairs in basal median area along im

** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, wingspan: 68-84mm. Fw: light-colored band/bar extending from light coloured, triangular subreniform spot along am line to costa. Brown, kidney-shaped reniform spot surrounded in pale grey, outlined in black, usually with distinct black along wing veins in a dark area outside the reniform spot. Hw: fringe lightly barred; lighter in color than deeper orange on rest of wing.

Catocala piatrix, Caldwell County, October 24, 2009, Aubrey Scott.

** 8798 Catocala neogama; wingspan 70-85mm. Brown head, thorax, larger size as compared to C. palaeogama. Neogama tend to be slightly smaller than subnata, have darker grey brown fws with more pronounced markings. Examination of hind tibia needed for id. Neogama's: flattened, unevenly, sparsely spined; subnata's: cylindrical, spines dense, uniform in distribution. Joe Garris photo.

** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing: 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey and light brown scales, usually with hws brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, but present in females. Magnification of hind tibia needed for id: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia. subnata: ventral surface of tibia densely covered with evenly distributed spines; neogama: ventral surface of tibia sparsely covered.

** 8796 Catocala nebulosa; Clouded; wingspan 75-86mm
Prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch that extends to and ends at am line. Apical area tends to be brown, much darker than median area but not as dark as basal patch. Anal angle also has darker brown scaling. Pm line distinct near costa and im, becoming weak between the two. It meets im in relative close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot large, connects to pm line via thin line.

** 8804 C. marmorata; Marbled; wingspan 85-95mm
Dark fw arc runs from costa down through reniform spot to outer margin just below apex. The subrenifrom spot is light, is bordered inwardly above by a white patch, and is connected to the pm line by a line rather than being open.

Catocala marmorata, Boone, Watauga County, September 8, 2011, Eric Smith

Medium-Large Pink Underwings: Wingspans: 70-95mm

** 8833 concumbens Sleepy Underwing or Pink Underwing; 60-75mm. This brown thoracic collar is quite evident in this image as is the interruption in the pm line by the open subreniform spot. The white hindwing fringe is only lightly checked on the wing veins. The vibrant pink bans are distinct in colour and also in their relatively smooth contour.

** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; wingspan 70-85mm. Deep maroon almost purple cast to fws, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am and pm lines barely visible. No distinctive bars or dashes. Two upper "teeth" on pm line thin and long. Hw bands pink. Heavy black checking on off-white hw fringe. Relatively thick black hw median band almost reaches im which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs. Tim Dyson image.

** Catocala carissima; wingspan 70-85mm. Distinct light grey brown area at fw apex, preceded just inside pm line by slightly darker patch. Am and pm lines sharp and dark. Hw inner black band wide, complete, merges with extensive grey-black scaling along im. Hw fringe cream coloured.

** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm). Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning and colouration similar to that of C. concumbens, but large size (wingspan 75-95mm) and dark bar running from basal area to just below apex distinguishes C. amatrix. See large Catocala amatrix courtesy of Joan F. Rickert.

** 8834 amatrix form selecta Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Several forms, including selecta (to the left) which lacks dark bar on forewing. Hesseli: melanic form; pallida: very pale form.

** 8834 amatrix form hesseli Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. The melanic form hesseli is very dark and displays dark basal hairs in the hindwing.

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Visit "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 37–83 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks

Enjoy some of nature's wonderments, giant silk moth cocoons. These cocoons are for sale winter and fall. Beautiful Saturniidae moths will emerge the following spring and summer. Read Actias luna rearing article. Additional online help available.

Eggs of many North American Saturniidae species are offered during the spring and summer. Occasionally summer Actias luna and summer Antheraea polyphemus cocoons are available. Shipping to US destinations is done from within the US.

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