Catocala of Massachusetts

Catocala cerogama, Hampshire County, Massachusetts,
October 8, 2007, courtesy of Barbara Spencer.

The following thumbnail table displays the Catocala species that are generally recognized as flying in Massachusetts and/or species which I feel are likely to be found in Massachusetts.

Please help me improve the documented accuracy of this site by sending sighting data (date and location, bait, flowers, lights) and electronic images to Bill Oehlke. I will do my best to identify specimens if you need/want assistance. All images that I post on my websites are credtied to respective photographers and remain the property of the photographers.

As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.

I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.

Many thanks to Dave Small of Athol, Worcester County, who has sent many images and data from his locale. I am able to refine some of my descriptions, notably Catocala praeclara, based on his efforts.

Many thanks also to Barbara Spencer, Josua Rose, Betsy Higgins and Brian Klassanos who have also sent images and data for Massachusetts.

Many thanks to Ray who provides the following images of a small (65mm) Catocala unijuga from northwestern Massachusetts.

Catocala unijuga, 65 mm, NW Massachusetts, id confirmed by Larry Gall,
courtesy of Ray.

Catocala unijuga, 65 mm, NW Massachusetts, id confirmed by Larry Gall,
courtesy of Ray.

Many thanks to Sissy Ffolliott who provides the following image.

Catocala untronia, Essex County, Massachusetts,
August 14, 2020, courtesy of Sissy Ffolliott.

The Identification Keys Diagram should help you understand the terminology I have used in describing the various species.

Visit Massachusetts Sphingidae

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-50mm

**8878 Catocala amica; Girlfriend; 35-40mm: Black pm band absent from dorsal (upper) surface of hw, but present on ventral surface. Moths come in to lights, bait. Catocala amica lineella now (2010) elevated to full species status as Catocala lineella. Maurice Bottos image.

** 8878.1 lineella; Little Lined Underwing; 35-40mm: Without hw marginal black band. Fw sbrnfrm spot pale, boldy outlined with black. Light brownish-gray patch in upper half of median area near pm line, just between sbrnfrm spot and am line is coloured light patch paralleling am line. Rnfrm spot: dark, less distinct, in generally darker area.

Catocala lineella, Athol, Worcester Co., July 27, 2012; Aug. 4; Sept. 5, 2011, Dave Small
Catocala lineella, Amherst, Hampshire Co., Sept. 7, 2011, Joshua S. Rose
Catocala lineella, Florence, Hampshire Co., July 23, 2012, Betsy Higgins

** 8874 Catocala minuta TM; Little Underwing, 35-45mm; Fw grey-brown, greatly widened, white, st line (near costa only). Hw outer black band unbroken, inner band in complete loop, brown scaling along im. "eureka": blackish area between am,pm lines; "hiseri": dull grey fw, very faint markings; "mellitula": blackish patch in basal area from costa to im; "obliterata": melanic form, almost completely black fw; "parvula": broad dark patch along fw i. m..

** 8873 similis; Similar Underwing, 35-45mm: Pale triangular patch from pm line along costa, pointed at apex, light-coloured, tear-shaped rnfrm spot. Sbrnfrm spot projects much beyond rnfrm anteriorally at right angle to sbrnfom line. Many specimens have small, light coloured, flattened oval spot about halfway between pm/am lines near midpoint of rnfrm spot. Pm line almost straight for most of length.

** 8846 sordida; Sordid Underwing, 37-45mm: Fw lighter along costa, darker along inner margin. Dark medial lines especially evident through lighter shades near costa. Hw outer black band broken near anal angle. Determination on moth to right based on dark scaling along inner margin limited to median area, sbmrgnl "teeth" relatively short, blunt.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha, the Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm: Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black, white tints. Usually darkened band passing from costa through rnfrm spot to outer margin. High variability.

Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form gisela, Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm: Usually grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black, white tints. Usually darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "gisela" Meyer has fw mostly black.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form hero, the Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm: Usualy have grey fws shaded with green, brown, black, white tints. Usually adarkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "hero" H. Edwards: median area mostly white.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, the Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm: Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings. Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm: Usually grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black, white tints. Usually darkened band passing from costa through rnfrm spot to o.m. Form "sargenti" (very rare): hw all black.

** 8877 connubialis, Connubial Underwing, 35-50mm: Fw highly variable, several different forms: "sancta" typical form: fws with white ground colour, sharply contrasting black lines, markings. Brown shading between post medial and subterminal lines; "cordelia": coloured as above but markings faint; "pulverulenta": grey-green fws, faint markings, sometimes none; "broweri": melanic form fws dark green, almost black. Hw: separate anal spot; outer band ends straight cut.

Catocala connubialis, Athol, Worcester Co., July 21, 2011, Dave Small.

** 8848 louiseae, Louise's Underwing, 40mm: Distinct white "smile" (in spread specimens) between reniform, subreniform spots. Narrow but distinct white line immediately following black pm line. Hw deep yellow orange, outer black band interrupted, followed by dot, ending before im.

** 8847 gracilis, Graceful Underwing, 40-45mm: C losely resembles sordida but hw loop not complete in gracilis as in sordida. Gracilis tends to have darker inner margin, frequently (99% of the time) but not always, basal dash. Sordida never has basal dash.

Catocala gracilis, Athol, Worcester Co., August 2, 2011, Dave Small
Catocala gracilis, Amherst, Hampshire Co., August 9, 2011, Joshua S. Rose

Catocala pretiosa; Precious Underwing, 40-50mm: Quite similar to crataegi, mira; pretiosa has considerable creamy white colouration in median area. Lower portion of basal area also light, not dark as in crataegi. Inner black band of hw forms loop, outer band is broken (not complete as in mira, followed by dot that tapers to anal angle.

Catocala mira; Wonderful Underwing, 40-50mm: Pale basal area of fw dstinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown), crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi and blandula. Considerable brown in sbtrmnl area, sbrnfrm spot: very conspicuous, usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to sbrnfrm spot. Noticeable space along i. m. between am/ pm lines. Hw: deep orange, complete inner black band. Outer black band unbroken.

** 8858 Catocala crataegi; Hawthorn Underwing, 40-50mm: Determination based on dark (black) shading in fw basal area continuing along i. m. to anal angle and brown shading beyond pm line. Definite greenish cast to median area. Hw outer black band, broken near anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula.

Catocala crataegi, Athol, Worcester Co., July 25, 2011, Dave Small.

** 8858 Catocala blandula; Charming Underwing, 40-50mm: Difficult to distinguish blandula from crataegi, mira; mira lacks dark basal shading common to blandula, crataegi. Blandula tends to differ from crataegi in that blandula has
1) am/pm lines meet at inner margin,
2) brown, not black basal area,
3) absence of green tint in median area,
4) Hw outer black band unbroken.

Catocala blandula, Athol, Worcester County, July 10, 2010, July 21, 2011, Dave Small.
Catocala blandula, Cummington, Hampshire County, July 18, 2014, Barbara Spencer.

** 8864 Catocala grynea; Woody Underwing, 40-50mm: Fw dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along i.m.. Am, median, pmlines quite faint. Praeclara somewhat similar, but has break in brown shading between am/pm lines. Praeclara has paler orange hindwing color.

Catocala grynea, Athol, Worcester Co., July 24, 2011, Dave Small.
Catocala grynea, Amherst, Hampshire County, August 12, 2011, Joshua S. Rose.

** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, 40-50mm: Fw pale greenish-grey with contrasting brown shading beyond pm line. Black basal dash very close to i.m,; another dash, higher up in median area. Note contrasting shapes of rnfrm/sbrnfrm spots. Upper of larger pml teeth longer, wider than lower tooth. Note double, white filled amls. Lighter, subcircular patch, outlined in black, brown on lower thorax.

Catocala praeclara, Athol, Worcester County, July 15; August 2, 2011, Dave Small.
Catocala praeclara, Athol, Worcester County, July 9, 2012, Dave Small; images added to above file.
Catocala praeclara, Florence, Hampshire County, July 16, 2014, Betsy Higgins.

** 8775 antinympha; Sweetfern Underwing, 45-55mm: Very dark grey, almost black, fw ground colour distinguishes antinympha. Some brown shading in sbrnfrm spot, and just outside pm line. Hw amber to pale orange. Form multoconspicua: pale, almost white subreniform spot.

Catocala antinympha, Athol, Worcester Co., July 26; Sept 9, 2011; July 17, 2012, Dave Small.
Catocala antinympha, Amherst, Hampshire Co., August 31; Sept 1, 2011, Joshua S. Rose.

** 8774 muliercula; Little Wife Underwing. Hw black bands very wide with considerable dark scaling along i. ms. Hw fringe very dark as is general reddish-brown ground colour of fws. Fw apex preceded along costa by lighter, grey-brown patch. maybe in southern counties

** 8776 badia coelebs; Old Maid Underwing, 54-56mm: Gray region from fw pm line to outer margin readily distinguishes this species. Fringe gray on lower wing from brief orange dash at hindwing apex to anal angle.

Tim Dyson image. maybe

** 8777 badia; Bay Underwing, wingspan ??.
Has a limited range.
Catocala badia caterpillar shows preference for Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern) and Myrica cerifera (Southern bayberry/Southern wax myrtle) and Myrica pensylvanica (Northern bayberry). possible in southeastern Massachusetts, but unlikely. Steve Walter image (New York)

Midsized Orange-Salmon-Red-Scarlet Underwings: Wingspans: 50-72mm

** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, 50-63mm: Fws typically gray-brown, with distinct, very dark i. m. and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Hws yellow to orange to salmon.

** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, 50-63mm: Form lucinda: most of fw bright grey. On all forms there is extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface, and there is a dark discal lunule.

Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, Ultronia Underwing, 50-63mm. Melanic form: dorsal fw very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash, dash near anal angle still visible. Dark basal hairs onhws. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from son.

Catocala ultronia form celia.

In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and a dark patch near the apex. The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.

Catocala ultronia lucinda, Amherst, Hampshire Co., Sept. 3, 2011, Joshua S. Rose.
Catocala ultronia, Athol, Worcester Co., Sept. 28, 2011, Dave Small.

** 8779 serena Serene Underwing: Head and collar and abdomen: brown while thorax is grey. Am and pm lines are thin but very dark and distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey forewing. The black marginal band of the lower wings is indented at the center, and the relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels this indentation. Basal hairs are brown. Carroll Rudy image.

** 8850a herodias gerhardi Gerhard's Underwing; wingspan: 55-65mm; Fw grey and brown, no medial lines. Fw veins somewhat darkened in median areas with white streaks from pm area to outer fringe, running parallel to i. m. Susbspecies has distinctive very light, almost white, border along fw costa.

#8778 Catocala habilis; wingspan: 55-65mm
Large "M" on thorax, "pork chop" shaped, light subreniform spot, constricted at juncture with pml. Pml narrow, dark, distinct, outwardly lined with narrow suffusion of white scales, followed by broader band of brown, then broader suffusion of white up to very regular dentation of sbtml line. Fw veins in pm area have grey, feathery appearance, against lighter background. Significant "bleeding" of yellow-orange-salmon scales into hw fringes. Large reniform spot: brown center, faintly edged in black, then white, then black again.

Catocala habilis, Athol, Worcester Co., Aug. 23, 2009, Sept. 1, 9, 2011, Dave Small.
Catocala habilis, Amherst, Hampshire Co., Aug. 12, 2011, Joshua S. Rose.

#8817 briseis; Briseis Underwing; 60-70mm. Fws predominantly mottled dark-grey-brown with some lighter areas 1) between pm & sbtml lines, 2) at base of am, pm lines along i. m., & 3) over subreniform spot running diagonally toward costa. Pm lines lack greatly elongated, sharply pointed "teeth" near apex. Hw fringe white, unbroken; inner black band (fairly even) reaches i. m.. probably rare

#8795 Catocala palaeogama ; wingspan: 60-70mm. Subreniform spot closed, does not approach pm line, is smaller than in C. habilis. All forms have characteristic orange, heavily barred fringe to apex, and irregular bands on hws. Hw basal median area heavily suffused with dark brown to black scales. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling i. m. halfway between i. m. and light, closed subreniform spot. Joe Garris photo.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama form phalanga; wingspan: 60-70mm. In this form, fw basal area and subterminal area are very dark against a much lighter background. Dark bar in the outer half of the median area, paralleling the inner margin halfway between the inner margin and the light, closed subreniform spot is especially evident. Joe Garris image.

Catocala palaeogama, Athol, Worcester County, August 31, 2011, Dave Small.

** 8770 Catocala innubens; Betrothed; 55-72mm. Fw: mottled with white, grey, brown; subrenifrom spot tends to be lighter in colour, although sometimes obscured by indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin. Note large, light, fw apical patch, scarcely interrupted by subterminal line.

** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm. In form scintillans most of basal area (all but lower third) and all of median area of forewing is dark reddish brown. Area outside pm line is grey.
All forms: Hw black outer band has two relatively straight inner edges, not irregular as in ilia. Vernon A Brou image.

Catocala innubens, Athol, Worcester County, August 29, 2011, Dave Small.
Catocala innubens, Amherst, Hampshire County, July 20; August 6, 8; 2011, Joshua S. Rose.
Catocala innubens, form scintillans, Athol, Worcester County, August 3, 2013, Dave Small.

** 8851 Catocala coccinata; Scarlet; 57-70mm: Usually diffuse basal, anal dashes on light grey, mottled fw. Hw fringe white (often with some salmon scaling); heavily checked. "Tooth" just below pair of very elongated "teeth" much reduced, quite rounded, usually allowing considerable room for lighter patch of scales. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot light, often with greenish cast.

Catocala coccinata, Athol, Worcester County, July 28, 2011, Dave Small.

Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired

miranda, Miranda Underwing; 37-45mm; Fw: plain pale grey with very light and fine black lines, darker and wider near costa. Hw black with white fringe at the apex, turning to grey along the outer margin. Miranda is smaller than look-alike orba and miranda also has a dark bar just above the inner margin in the median area, projecting toward the anal angle. Very questionable ??

Catocala orba, Orba Underwing, (wingspan: 40-45mm). Fw uniform grey with light lines and poorly defined spots. Hw underside completely black. Hw fringe unbroken, slightly off white, somewhat grey. on record, possibly as a non-resident stray

Catocala andromedae, Gloomy Underwing, 40-50mm. Black underwings and dark grey fringe of hws, coupled with dark i.m. of fws help to identify this species. Very dark "flying saucer" shape, adjoining subreniform spot to midpoint of am line. "Teeth" of pm line short, blunt, outwardly edged with white. Subterminal line: outwardly edged with white.

Catocala andromedae, Athol, Worcester Co., July 26, 2011, Dave Small.

** 8781 judith, Judith's Underwing, 45-55mm; one of smaller "black" underwings. Fw uniform light grey with thin, only slightly darkened antemedial, median & pm lines. No darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. Reniform area slightly darkened while the area just before the subterminal line is a bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo.

** 8773 Catocala epione , yes; Epione Underwing, wingspan: 55-65mm
The pm line is squared and has a brown band and then a light band just outside the line.
The hindwing is black with pure white fringe with no barring.

Catocala epione, Athol, Worcester County, July 17, 2012, Dave Small
Catocala epione, Franklin, Hampshire County, August 7, 2015, Betsy Higgins

** 8782 Catocala flebilis ; Mournful, wingspan: 54-65mm. Diffuse black band runs from basal area to outer margin just below apex, interrupted by pale grey subreniform spot. Reniform spot filled with brown, additional brown outside postmedial line. No anal dash as in angusi. Hws have white fringe.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas distinguish angusi. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white at apex. Form lucetta has broad black band from basal area to o.m., broken by reniform & subreniform spots. unconfirmed

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas distinguish angusi. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white at apex. Form lucetta: broad black band from basal area to o.m., broken by reniform & subreniform spots.

Catocala dejecta; Dejected; 56-73mm. Pale grey patch from reniform and subreniform juncture to costal margin is diagnostic. Note open, light "pork chop" shape of subreniform spot. Two "teeth" in pml above subreniform spot relatively short, blunt. Upper portion of aml thick, black; lower half: light rounded lobes outlined in black. Hw fringe white with black wing veins extending like "teeth".

Catocala retecta; 60-75mm. Note light coloured, elongated, open subreniform spot which interrupts dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Center of reniform spot brown with brown area just below costa running to inner margin just outside pm line. Off-white hindwing fringe only lightly checked along wing veins.

Catocala luctuosa, Underwing, 70mm. Fw light grey (yellowish tint) clearly marked with basal dash that continues with another dash through am line, followed by another anal dash almost forming bar parallel to im. Hw fringe white, lightly barred at veins. Fw pml "teeth" elongated and dark, continuing dark dar emanating from om just below apex.

Catocala luctuosa (tentative id by Bill Oehlke), Amherst, Hampshire Co., Sept. 2, 2011,
courtesy of Joshua S. Rose, see species file.

** 8784 obscura; the Obscure Underwing, (wingspan: 60-72mm), has dull, grey forewings, usually void of any significant dashes, streaks, providing for easy identification. Am, median and pm lines faint and subterminal line region is only slightly paler than rest of fw. Hw fringe is off-white, lightly checked on veins. Joe Garris photo.

Catocala obscura, Ware, Hampshire Co., August 24, 2014, Brian Klassanos.

Catocala residua, Residua Underwing, 58-73mm: Distinguished from obscura by grey hw fringe of residua. obscura has white to off-white fringe, tends to be less common in northern portions of range. Fw sbtrmnl line/area of C. residua: pale, as is its open, elongated subreniform spot. Devoid of significant markings except for hint of dark bar running from basal area through rnfrm spot to om just below apex.

Catocala residua, Athol, Worcester County, September 4, 2011, Dave Small
Catocala residua, Athol, Worcester County, September 25, 2011, Dave Small
Catocala residua, Amherst, Hampshire County, August 5, 2011, Joshua S. Rose
Catocala residua, Hampshire County, September 8, 2013, Betsy Higgins

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm; probably; Fw: highly variable with mixture of black, brown (wing tips and outside postmedial line), dark grey scaling. Usually whitish crescents, along inner margin at base of am/pm lines Hws: black with white checkered fringe, turning black near anal angle. Several different forms.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. Form paulina: lighter grey post median area & area along and parallel to inner margin, in sharp contrast to darker basal median areas.
Ken Childs live image of form paulina from Tennessee on lacrymosa file.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm.

In form evelina there is a wide black band along the forewing inner margin.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; GSMNP/TP/WAM/KC. In form albomarginata there is an abundance of white scaling on the forewing.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; TP. Form "zelica", has black basal patch and strong black subterminal line.

** 8791 Catocala insolabilis; Inconsolable, 65-75mm. Fw light grey with blackish shading along inner margin. Am and pm lines thin. Hw fringe very narrow and grey, becoming whiter toward apex. Ventral surface clearly distinguishes insolabis, being almost completely black except for some white in basal area.

** 8780 Catocala robinsoni; wingspan: 70-80mm; Relatively plain pale grey forwewings. Female has basal dash, absent in male. Currata French, 1882, is female form, having weak basal dash. Rare form missouriensis Schwarz, 1915, has dark, broad bar extending from basal area to om just below apex. Lighter grey rnfm and subrnfm spots break bar in missouriensis, found from PA. to FL. All forms have white hw fringe; bands on ventral surface are prominent.

** 8792 Catocala vidua; Widow; 70-80mm. Fw ground colour light grey. Distinguishing dark arc runs through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal and basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to i. m. Am line thick, black in its upper half. Reniform spot with two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot light, open, constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, lightly interrupted. Marie Winn image.

Large Black Underwings (Banded): Wingspans: 70-80mm

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws.
Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales.

Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form clara: basal and subterminal areas predominantly white.

Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form phrynia: evenly dusted with grey over entire forewing. Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October, poplars and willows

Catocala relicta, Athol, Worcester County, September 29, 2011, Dave Small

** 8802 Catocala cerogama BS; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm. Several different forms. Pm line distinct, dark with elongate pair of projections. Pm & am lines meet im in relative proximity. Closed subreniform spot lighter than surrounding areas, shaped like arrowhead with point toward body. Hws distinctive. BS: Hampshire: October.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.
Form ruperti: Forewings are almost uniform grey-brown with white scales outlining subterminal line.

The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.
Form bunkeri: Forewings are dark in median and basal areas. Hw golden band is reduced in thickness. Basal hairs are brown instead of yellow.

The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

Catocala cerogama, Hampshire County, October 8, 2007, courtesy of Barbara Spencer.
Catocala cerogama, Athol, Worcester County, September 4, 2011, Dave Small

Large Orange-Salmon Underwings: Wingspans: 65mm, usually 70-95mm

** 8822 meskei; Meske's Underwing; 65-75mm; Fw less distinctly marked compared to unijuga; some red-orange at hw apex & inside fringe along outer margin in meskei, lacking in unijuga. Fw subreniform spot: opened or connected to pm line. Hw postmedian band nearly straight, turned in and tapering near anal angle. Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; wingspan: 65-82mm. Several different forms, most have characteristic white area in and around reniform spot. Diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below apex. Subreniform spot squarish, concave inner and outer edges and elongated constriction connecting it to pml. White dots near fw om in character with the overall "contrasting" appearance.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua

In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas

In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".

The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani

In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.

The basal streak and subapical arc are still visible.

Tim Dyson image.

Catocala ilia form satanas, Athol, Worcester Co., Sept. 1, 2011, Dave Small.

** 8772 Catocala consors; Consort, 70mm plus. Fw: irregular am & pm narrow black lines. Dark patch outside reniform and subreniform spots. Orange-yellow hw pm band tends to be narrow, irregularly zigzagged. Sometimes band is wider, slightly less irregular. maybe ??

** 8857.1 Catocala umbrosa; Double brown am line, inward line fainter, filled with off white; rnfrm spot: brown center, outlined in black, off white, black again; sbrnfrm, large, pale, notched on inward side, closed. Pm line: two elongated upper teeth, next tooth reduced, next two progressively longer, rounded, final lobe rounded, shorter. HW: dark scaling/hairs along im

Catocala umbrosa, Essex County, Massachusetts, September 9, 2013, Sissy Ffolliott

** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, 68-84mm. Fw: light-colored band/bar extending from light coloured, triangular subreniform spot along am line to costa. Brown, kidney-shaped reniform spot surrounded in pale grey, outlined in black, usually with distinct black along wing veins in dark area outside reniform spot. Hw: fringe lightly barred; lighter in color than deeper orange.

Catocala piatrix, Athol, Worcester County, September 6, 2011, Dave Small.

** 8805 unijuga; Once-married; wingspan: 70-90mm. Fairly wide black inner band (almost reaching inner margin) in the hw and very distinctive patterning in fw. Meskei tend to have narrower band and dustier (less distinct) looking forewing. Semirelicta tend to have inner bands that terminate well before i. m.
Also note the very white fringe on both fws and hws.

Catocala unijuga, Athol, Worcester County, July 18; August 30; Sept. 29, 2011, Dave Small

** 8806 Catocala parta; Mother Underwing, 70-85mm. Black dashes in basal, subapical, anal areas help to identify this species. Hws may be yellow to yellowish-orange but more often are salmon-red. Note face-head-like markings on thorax. Hw: first (nearest apex) black protrusion into white fringe "noticeably" larger than others.

** 8798 Catocala neogama; 70-85mm. Brown head, thorax, larger size compared to C. palaeogama. Neogama tend to be smaller than subnata, have darker grey brown fws with more pronounced markings. Examination of hind tibia needed for id. Neogama's: flattened, unevenly, sparsely spined; subnata's: cylindrical, spines dense, uniform in distribution.

Visit Catocala neogama, Amherst, Hampshire County, August 30, 2011, Joshua S. Rose.

** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing: 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey and light brown scales, usually with hws brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, but present in females. Magnification of hind tibia needed for id: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia. subnata: ventral surface of tibia densely covered with evenly distributed spines; neogama: ventral surface of tibia sparsely covered.

** 8796 Catocala nebulosa ; Clouded; 75-86mm. Prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch extends to and ends at am line. Apical area also tends to be brown, much darker than median area but not as dark as basal patch. Anal angle has darker brown scaling. Pm line: distinct near costa and inner margin, but becomes weak between them. It meets inner margin in relative close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot: large, connects to pm line via thin line. Maybe ??

** 8804 Catocala marmorata ; Marbled Underwing; 85-95mm. Dark fw arc from costa through reniform spot to outer margin just below apex distinguishes this species from other "pinkish-red" underwings. Subrenifrom spot light, bordered inwardly above by white patch, connected to pm line by line rather than being open. Unlikely ??

Large Pink Underwings: Wingspans: 70-95mm

** 8833 Catocala concumbens Sleepy Underwing or Pink Underwing (wingspan: 60-75mm). This brown thoracic collar is quite evident in this image as is the interruption in the pm line by the open subreniform spot. The white hindwing fringe is only lightly checked on the wing veins. The vibrant pink bans are distinct in colour and also in their relatively smooth contour.

Catocala concumbens, Athol, Worcester Co., August 24, 2009, Dave Small.
Catocala concumbens, Ware, Hampshire Co., August 24, 2014, Brian Klassanos.

** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; 70-85mm. Note deep maroon almost purple cast to fws, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am & pm lines barely visible. No distinctive bars, dashes. Two upper "teeth" on pm line are thin, long. Hw bands: pink. Heavy black checking on off-white hw fringe. Relatively thick black median band of hw almost reaches inner margin which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs.

Catocala cara, Athol, Worcester County, September 12, 2011, Dave Small.
Catocala cara, Cummington, Hampshire County, October 3, 2011, Barbara Spencer.

** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; 75-95mm: Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning; colouration similar to that of C. concumbens, but large size (75-95mm) & dark bar running from basal area to just below apex distinguishes C. amatrix. See large Catocala amatrix courtesy of Joan F. Rickert.

** 8834 amatrix form selecta Sweetheart Underwing; 75-95mm: Very skittish; frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Several forms, including selecta (left) which lacks dark bar on forewing. Hesseli: melanic form; pallida: very pale form.

** 8834 amatrix form hesseli Sweetheart Underwing; 75-95mm: Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Melanic form hesseli is very dark; displays dark basal hw hairs.

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