Updated as per "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 3783 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks; March 21, 2010

Catocala of Alabama

Catocala ilia form conspicua, Baldwin County, Alabama,
May 12, 2007, courtesy of Dirk Bayer.

The following is adapted from a list obtained from James K. Adams, Dept. of Natural Science, Dalton State College, Dalton, Georgia.

Those species listed from Georgia to Texas or Arkansas have been included to comprise this list.

The list probably contains several omissions. It will be updated and refined as sighting data arrives over the years. Please send images with dates and collecting locales (including county) to Bill Oehlke.

As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.

I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.

The Identification Keys Diagram should help you understand the terminology I have used in describing the various species.

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-45mm

** C. alabamae; Alabama; wingspan: 30-40mm

The uniform greenish-grey forewing may have thin but dark (contrasting) medial lines or they may be nearly absent (titania); alabamae often displays a dash in the median/anal angle area, missing or nearly absent in titania. There is brown shading between the post medial line and the subterminal line.

Vernon A. Brou image.

**8878 Catocala praeclara charlottae; Charlotte's Underwing; The upper half of the am line is dark, thick and oblique, and turns in a slightly obtuse angle to the inner margin in a straight line. The pm line is black, thin, but distinct, with a single pronounced "tooth". The reniform spot sggests a figure eight and the subreniform spot is closed but cnnected to the pml with a weak line.

Catocala jair; 35-40mm. The moth is hard to distinguish from amica, but jair has broader, blunter forewings than amica and the post medial line of jair is straighter (much less dentate) than that of amica. The hindwings of both species seem identical.

**8878 Catocala amica; Girlfriend; wingspan: 35-40mm
The black postmedian band is absent from the dorsal (upper) surface of the hindwing, but it is present on the ventral surface. Moths come in to lights and to bait.

Catocala amica lineella is now (2010) elevated to full species status as Catocala lineella.
Maurice Bottos image.

** 8878.1 lineella; Little Lined Underwing; 35-40mm. No marginal black band on hw. Fw subreniform spot pale, boldy outlined with black. Light brownish-gray patch in upper half of median area near pml, and just between subreniform spot and am line there is similarly coloured light patch paralleling aml. Reniform spot dark, less distinct, in generally darker area. Form "curvifascia" has diffuse black-brown arc from mid costa region toward mid om.

** 8874 Catocala minuta; Little Underwing, wingspan: 35-45mm. unconfirmed, but expected Fw generally grey-brown with greatly widened (near costa only), white, st line. Fw outer black band unbroken, inner band forms complete loop with considerable brown scaling along im.

Many different forms. Steve Walter image.

** 8873 similis; Similar Underwing, wingspan: 35-45mm. Pale triangular patch from pm line along costa, pointed at apex, light-coloured, tear-shaped reniform spot. Subreniform spot projects much beyond reniform anteriorally at right angle to subreniform line. Many specimens have small, light coloured, flattened oval spot about halfway between pm/ am lines near midpoint of reniform spot. Pm line almost straight for most of length.

Catocala similis: May 11, 2008, Bon Secour, Mobile, AL, Dirk Bayer

** 8846 sordida; Sordid Underwing, wingspan: 37-45mm. unconfirmed The forewing is lighter along the costa and darker along the inner margin. Dark medial lines are especially evident through the lighter shades near the costa. The outer black band of the hindwing is broken near the anal angle. I made the determination on the moth to the right based on dark scaling along the inner margin limited to median area and submarginal "teeth" relatively short and blunt. Tim Dyson image.

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-56mm
These tend to be slightly larger on average than preceding group.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). John Himmelman image. Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. High variability. Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form gisela, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).
The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "gisela" Meyer has a forewing that is mostly black. Leroy Simon image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form hero, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "hero" H. Edwards has a median area that is mostly white.
Joe Garris image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).

Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings.

Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "sargenti" Covell (very rare) has a hindwing that is all black.

** 8877 connubialis, Connubial Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Fw highly variable; several different forms: "sancta": typical form, fws with white ground colour and sharply contrasting black lines and markings. Brown shading between post medial and subterminal lines; "cordelia": coloured as above, markings faint; "pulverulenta": grey-green fws with faint markings, sometimes none; "broweri": melanic form with fws dark green, almost black. Hw: separate anal spot, outer band ends with a straight cut. Leroy Simon image.

** 8848 louiseae, Louise's Underwing, (wingspan: 40mm). Distinct white "smile" (in spread specimens) between reniform and subreniform spots. Narrow but distinct white line immediately following black postmedial line. Hw deep yellow orange, outer black band interrupted, followed by dot, ending before im.

messalina, Messalina Underwing, (40-45mm); unconfirmed;

The forewing is a plain, dull, grey-green, darkening toward the outer margin.

The hindwing is like that of the false underwing, having no inner black band. The outer band is quite wide.

C. messalina flies in evergreen oak habitats.

** 8772 gracilis; Graceful Underwing, wingspan 40-45mm.

Gracilis closely resembles sordida but the hindwing loop is not complete in gracilis as it is in sordida. Gracilis also tends to have a darker inner margin and there is frequently (99% of the time, Dale Schweitzer, via Joe Garris), but not always, a basal dash. Sordida never has the basal dash.

Catocala pretiosa Precious Underwing; 40-50mm; The median area is quite light with a wide whitish band paralleling the antemedial line from the costa almost to the inner margin. The subreniform spot is distinctly brown. The inner black band on the hindwing forms a complete loop and mingles with dark scaling along the inner margin. The outer black band is almost broken. The orange-yellow fringe is heavily checked with black.
"Subspecies" texarkana is now a synonym of pretiosa rather than a subspecies.

** 8864 Catocala grynea ; Woody Underwing, 40-50mm: The forewing is a dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along the inner margin. The antemedial, median and postmedial lines are quite faint. Praeclara is somewhat similar but has a break in the brown shading between the am and pm lines. Praeclara also has a paler orange hindwing color. Tim Dyson image.

** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm. Fw pale greenish-grey with considerable contrasting brown shading beyond post medial line. There is a black basal dash very close to the inner margin and another dash, higher up in the median area. Note the contrasting shapes of the reniform and subreniform spots. Upper of two larger pml teeth is longer, wider than lower tooth. Note double, white filled amls. Lighter, subcircular patch, outlined in black, brown on lower thorax.

** 8867 Catocala blandula; Charming Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm.
Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw has dark contrasting lines as in crataegi. There is also considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot is very conspicuous and usually brown. A light area runs obliquely from the costa to the subreniform spot. hw is deep orange and has a complete inner black band. The outer black band is unbroken. Lynn Scott image.

Catocala mira; Wonderful Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm. Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi and blandula. Considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot very conspicuous, usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. Noticeable space along i. m. between antemedial and postmedial lines. Hw deep orange and has a complete inner black band. The outer black band is unbroken Tim Dyson image.

** 8858 Catocala crataegi; Hawthorn Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm Determination is based on dark (black) shading in forewing basal area continuing along inner margin to anal angle and brown shading beyond postmedial line. Definite greenish cast to median area. Lower wing has outer black band, broken near anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula.

** 8841 Catocala abbreviatella; Abbreviated Underwing; 40-50mm: Fw uniformly colored with narrow black lines on anterior half. Brown reniform spot ringed with black. Hw outer black band abbreviated, folowed by dot. Inner black band terminates before i. m.. Similar species: Catocala nuptialis: solid black reniform spot. C. whitneyi: broad dark triangles fw middle.

** 8842 Catocala nuptialis; Maried Underwing, wingspan 40-50mm.
The reniform spot is very dark, black or almost black on an otherwise faintly marked, almost uniformly grey forewing. The outer black margin of the hindwing is unbroken, but is indented near the anal angle.

Jim Vargo image.

** 8860 lincolnana, Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Fws pale grey-brown with distinct dark curve running from costa along antemedial line to im, advancing to anal angle. Hw inner black band forms complete loop, outer black band broken and followed by dot.

** 8844 amestris; Three-staff Underwing; wingspan 43-50mm.

There is a large pale patch near the apex. In form "westcotti" the hindwing outer black band is complete. In other moths, the band is broken as in abbreviatella. Hindwing ground colour is usually deeper yellow-orange than in similar species. Leroy Simon image.

** 8772 clintoni; Clinton's Underwing, wingspan 45-55mm.

The black basal dash distinguishes clintoni from illecta and abbreviatella, both of which lack the dash.

Vernon Brou image.

Midsized Orange-Salmon-Red-Scarlet Underwings: Wingspans: 50-72mm

** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

Fws typically gray-brown, with a distinct and very dark inner margin and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Underwings can be yellow to orange to salmon.

** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

In form lucinda most of the forewing is bright grey.

On all forms there is extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface, and there is a dark discal lunule.

Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, the Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm. In the melanic form nigrescens, the dorsal forewing is very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash and dash near anal angle are still visible. Dark basal hairs on hindwing. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from his son.

Catocala ultronia form celia.

In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and a dark patch near the apex. The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.

** 8779 serena Serene Underwing; WI/JOD. The head and collar and abdomen are brown while the thorax is grey. The am and pm lines are thin but very dark and distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey forewing. The black marginal band of the lower wings is indented at the center, and the relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels this indentation. Basal hairs are brown. Catocala serena courtesy of Carroll Rudy.

#8778 Catocala habilis; wingspan: 55-65mm
Large "M" on thorax, "pork chop" shaped, light coloured subreniform spot very dark in constriction at juncture with pml. Pml narrow, dark, distinct, outwardly lined with narrow suffusion of white scales, followed by broader band of brown scales, then broader suffusion of white scales up to very regular dentation of sbtml line. Significant "bleeding" of yellow-orange-salmon scales into hw fringes. Large reniform spot has brown center, faintly edged in black, then white, then black again.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama ; wingspan: 60-70mm. Subreniform spot closed, does not approach pm line, is smaller than in C. habilis. All forms have characteristic orange, heavily barred fringe to apex, and irregular bands on hws. Hw basal median area heavily suffused with dark brown to black scales. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling i. m. halfway between i. m. and light, closed subreniform spot. Joe Garris photo.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama form phalanga; wingspan: 60-70mm. In this form, fw basal area and subterminal area are very dark against a much lighter background. Dark bar in the outer half of the median area, paralleling the inner margin halfway between the inner margin and the light, closed subreniform spot is especially evident. Joe Garris image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens; Betrothed; 55-72mm. Forewing is mottled with white, grey and brown, and subrenifrom spot tends to be lighter in colour, although it is sometimes obscured by an indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin.

Jim Vargo image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm.

In form scintillans most of the basal area (all but lower third) and all of the median area of the forewing is dark reddish brown. The area outside the pm line is grey.

Vernon A Brou image.

** 8851 Catocala coccinata; Scarlet; 57-70mm: Diffuse basal,anal dashes on otherwise light grey, mottled fw. Hw fringe white (often with some salmon scaling), heavily checked. "Tooth" just below pair of very elongated "teeth" is much reduced, quite rounded, usually allowing considerable room for lighter patch of scales. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot: light, often with greenish cast. Joe Garris image.

Catocala delilah; 58-65; The forewing is gray-brown with prominent black antemedial and postmedial lines. The hindwing is yellow-orange, with a narrow inner black band which reaches the inner margin. There is a large yellow spot at the apex, and the fringe is faintly barred. The underside of the wings is deep yellow with black bands. unconfirmed

** 8840 Catocala illecta; Magdalen Underwing, wingspan: 60-70mm
The forewing pattern and colouration is much like that of concumbens, pale grey with faint black lines.
Hindwings are light yellow and the irregular inner black band terminates well before the inner margin. James K. Adams image. maybe

** 8772 Catocala consors WO; Consort, wingspan: 70mm plus: Fw has irregular am, pm narrow black lines. Dark patch outside reniform, subreniform spots. Orange-yellow hindwing pm band tends to be narrow, irregularly zigzagged. Sometimes band is wider and slightly less irregular. James K. Adams image.

Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired

miranda, Miranda Underwing; 37-45mm; unconfirmed/??; Fw is a plain pale grey with very light and fine black lines, darker and wider near the costa. The hindwing is black with white fringe at the apex, turning to grey along the outer margin. Miranda is smaller than look-alike orba and miranda also has a dark bar just above the inner margin in the median area, projecting toward the anal angle.

orba, Orba Underwing; 40-45mm; unconfirmed; The forewing is a uniform grey with light lines and poorly defined spots. The hindwing underside is completely black. The hindwing fringe is unbroken and slightly off white, somewhat grey. Note absence of any dark bar in the median-subterminal area, paralleling the inner margin, near anal angle.

Catocala andromedae, Gloomy Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Black underwings and dark grey fringe of hws, coupled with dark i.m. of fws help to identify this species. There is also a very dark "flying saucer" shape, adjoining subreniform spot to midpoint of am line. The "teeth" of pm line short and blunt, outwardly edged with white. Subterminal line is also outwardly edged with white.

** 8781 judith, unconfirmed; Judith's Underwing, (wingspan: 45-55mm), is one of the smaller "black" underwings. The forewing is a uniform light grey with thin and only slightly darkened antemedial, median and postmedial lines. There are no darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. The reniform area is slightly darkened while the area just before the subterminal line is a bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo.

** 8782 Catocala flebilis, yes; Mournful, wingspan: 54-65mm. Diffuse black band runs from basal area to outer margin just below apex, interrupted by pale grey subreniform spot. Reniform spot is filled with brown; there is additional brown outside postmedial line. No anal dash as there is in angusi. The hindwings have white fringe. J. K. Adams image.

** 8773 Catocala epione , yes; Epione Underwing, wingspan: 55-65mm

The pm line is squared and has a brown band and then a light band just outside the line.

The hindwing is black with pure white fringe with no barring.
John Himmelman image.

Catocala dejecta; Dejected; wingspan 56-73mm. Pale grey patch from reniform and subreniform juncture to costal margin is diagnostic. Note open, light "pork chop" shape of subreniform spot. Two "teeth" in pml above subreniform spot are relatively short and blunt. Upper portion of aml thick and black; lower half has light rounded lobes outlined in black. Hw fringe is white with black wing veins extending like "teeth".

Catocala retecta; wingspan: 60-75mm. Note light coloured, elongated and open subreniform spot which interrupts dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Center of reniform spot brown and there is a brown area just below costa running to inner margin just outside pm line. Off-white hindwing fringe only lightly checked along wing veins. Joe Garris image.

** 8784 obscura; the Obscure Underwing, (wingspan: 60-72mm), has dull, grey forewings, usually void of any significant dashes, streaks, providing for easy identification. Am, median and pm lines faint and subterminal line region is only slightly paler than rest of fw. Hw fringe is off-white, lightly checked on veins. Joe Garris photo.

Catocala residua; Residua Underwing, (wingspan: 60-73mm), distinguished from Catocala obscura by grey hw fringe of residua. Catocala obscura has white to off-white fringe and tends to be less common in northern portions of its range. Fw subterminal line/area of Catocala residua tends to be pale as is its open, elongated subreniform spot. Like C. obscura it is otherwise devoid of significant markings except for hint of dark bar running from basal area through reniform spot to o. m. just below apex.

ulalume; Ulalume Underwing; 62-75mm; ; The forewing colouration is a mottled light to dark grey with no strongly contrasting lines, dashes or bars. At the inner margin the antemedial line ends with in a very light coloured crescent. The subrenifrom spot is also light coloured and "comma" shaped. The hindwing is black and the fringe is pure white with thin, sharp (pointed) checking.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm.

Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. James K. Adams image.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. Form lucetta has broad black band from basal area to om, broken only by reniform & subreniform spots. James K. Adams image.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. The forewing is highly variable with a mixture of black, brown (wing tips and outside postmedial line) and dark grey scaling. There are usually whitish crescents, along the inner margin at the base of the antemedial and postmedial lines.

The hindwings are black with white checkered fringe, turning black near the anal angle. There are several different forms.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. Form paulina: lighter grey post median area & area along and parallel to inner margin, in sharp contrast to darker basal median areas.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm.

In form evelina there is a wide black band along the forewing inner margin.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; GSMNP/TP/WAM/KC. In form albomarginata there is an abundance of white scaling on the forewing.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; TP. Form "zelica", has black basal patch and strong black subterminal line.

Catocala sappho; Sappho Underwing; 60-75mm; MB;

Forewings are off white with some grey-black-brown peppering and yellow-beige lines. The reniform spot is brown and the subreniform spot is almost pure white; the hindwings are black with a white fringe.

Catocala sappho, Huntsville, August 9, 2009, Maurice Bottos.

** 8791 Catocala insolabilis; Inconsolable, wingspan: 65-75mm; Fw light grey with blackish shading along inner margin. Antemedial and postmedial lines are thin. Hw fringe very narrow and grey, becoming whiter toward apex. Ventral surface clearly distinguishes insolabis, being almost completely black except for some white in basal area.
Vernon A. Brou image.

Catocala luctuosa; 70mm;; WAM; Light grey (yellowish tint) fw clearly marked with basal dash continuing with another dash through am line, then another anal dash almost forming bar parallel to the im. Hw fringe white & only lightly barred at veins. The "teeth" in the forewing postmedial line are elongated and dark, continuing a dark dar emanating from the outer margin just below the apex.

** Catocala myristica; slightly smaller than robinsonii, myristica has a browner cell spot and a darker bottom line on the longest extension of the pm line near the inner margin. Probably only in Black Belt on nutmeg hickory. unconfirmed

** Catocala myristica; slightly smaller than robinsonii, myristica has a browner cell spot and a darker bottom line on the longest extension of the pm line near the inner margin. Dark bar very prominent but does not intrude on cell mark, nor present along inner edge of reniform spot. Also note absence of upper black line inside reniform spot. unconfirmed

** 8780 Catocala robinsonii; 70-80mm. Fws relatively plain pale grey. Female has basal dash, absent in male. Currata French, 1882, female form: weak basal dash. Rare form missouriensis Schwarz, 1915: dark, broad bar extending from basal area to o.m. just below apex. Lighter grey rnfm, subrnfm spots break bar in missouriensis, found from PA. to FL. Hw fringe: White; bands on ventral surface prominent.

** 8780 Catocala robinsonii; 70-80mm. Barred form very similar to Catocala myristica but note very thin pm line from costa to inner margin. In myristica line thickens along lower edge of longest "loop" near inner margin. Note presence of upper black line inside reniform spot.

** 8792 Catocala vidua; Widow; 70-80mm. Fw ground colour light grey. Distinguishing dark arc runs through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal and basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to i. m. Am line thick, black in its upper half. Reniform spot with two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot light, open, constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, lightly interrupted. Marie Winn image.

Catocala agrippina, Underwing, (wingspan: 75-85mm). Head and body blackish grey (dorsal) and greyish white (ventral). Male fws grey-black with some reddish brown (distinguishing characteristic); transverse lines black, darker toward costa, lighter near im. Reniform indistinct, brown, sub-reniform almost obsolete, lighter than surrounding areas.

** 8793 Catocala maestosa, Sad Underwing, wingspan: 78-98mm. Maesotsa is quite similar to, although usually larger than, vidua. Both have the dark arc from the costa, above the reniform spot, to the outer margin just below the apex. Maesotsa, however, lacks the dark bar, found on vidua, parallel to the inner margin. The reniform spot is brown and there is brown shading just outside the postmedial line. The hindwing fringe is white, narrow and heavily barred.

Large Orange-Salmon Underwings: Wingspans: 65mm, usually 70-95mm

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; wingspan: 65-82mm. Several different forms, most have characteristic white area in and around reniform spot. Diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below apex. Subreniform spot squarish, concave inner and outer edges and elongated constriction connecting it to pml. White dots near fw om in character with the overall "contrasting" appearance.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua

In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas

In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".

The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani

In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.

The basal streak and subapical arc are still visible.

Tim Dyson image.

Catocala ilia: Dirk Bayer, Baldwin County, April 20, 2006; May 12, 2007, May 17, 2007

** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, wingspan: 68-84mm

The forewing has a light-colored band/bar extending from the subreniform spot along the am line to the costa.

The fringe of the hindwing is lightly barred and is lighter in color than the deeper orange on the rest of wing.

** 8798 Catocala neogama; wingspan 70-85mm. Brown head, thorax, larger size as compared to C. palaeogama. Neogama tend to be slightly smaller than subnata, have darker grey brown fws with more pronounced markings. Examination of hind tibia needed for id. Neogama's: flattened, unevenly, sparsely spined; subnata's: cylindrical, spines dense, uniform in distribution. Joe Garris photo.

** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing: 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey and light brown scales, usually with hws brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, but present in females. Magnification of hind tibia needed for id: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia. subnata: ventral surface of tibia densely covered with evenly distributed spines; neogama: ventral surface of tibia sparsely covered.

Catocala nebulosa; Moths have prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch that extends to and ends at antemedial line. Apical area also tends to be brown, much darker than median area but not as dark as basal patch. The anal angle also has the darker brown scaling. The pm line is distinct near costa and inner margin, but becomes weak between the two. It meets inner margin in relative close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot is large and connects to the pm line via a thin line.

Medium-Large Pink Underwings: Wingspans: 70-95mm

** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; wingspan 70-85mm. Note deep maroon almost purple cast to forewings, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am and pm lines barely visible. No distinctive bars or dashes. Two upper "teeth" on pm line are thin, long. Hw bands pink. Heavy black checking on off-white hindwing fringe. The relatively thick black median band of the hindwing almost reaches the inner margin which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs. Tim Dyson image.

** Catocala carissima; wingspan 70-85mm. Distinct light grey brown area at fw apex, preceded just inside pm line by slightly darker patch. Am and pm lines sharp and dark. Hw inner black band wide, complete, merges with extensive grey-black scaling along im. Hw fringe cream coloured.

** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm). Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning and colouration similar to that of C. concumbens, but large size (wingspan 75-95mm) and dark bar running from basal area to just below apex distinguishes C. amatrix. See large Catocala amatrix courtesy of Joan F. Rickert.

** 8834 amatrix form selecta Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Several forms, including selecta (to the left) which lacks dark bar on forewing. Hesseli: melanic form; pallida: very pale form.

** 8834 amatrix form hesseli Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. The melanic form hesseli is very dark and displays dark basal hairs in the hindwing.

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Visit "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 3783 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks

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